*Dictionary-Explanations-Srimad Vers-& Bhagavad Gita-Ch 10 Dec 29, 2015 13:24:58 GMT 1
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Srimad Bhagavad Gita
Glimpses of the Divine Glory
Glimpses of the Divine Glory
The Blessed Lord said:
1. Again, O mighty-armed, do thou listen to My supreme word, which I, wishing thy welfare, will tell thee who art delighted (to hear Me). 1
2. Neither the hosts of Devas, nor the great Rishis, know My origin, for in every way I am the source of all the Devas and the great Rishis. 2
3. He who knows Me, birthless and beginningless, the great Lord of worlds, he, among mortals, is undeluded, he is freed from all sins. 3
4-5. Intellect, knowledge, non-delusion, forbearance, truth, restraint of the external senses, calmness of heart, happiness, misery, birth, death, fear, as well as fearlessness, non-injury, evenness, contentment, austerity, benevolence, good name, (as well as) ill-fame; (these) different kinds of qualities of beings arise from Me alone. 4
6. The seven great Rishis as well as the four ancient Manus, possessed of powers like Me (due to their thoughts being fixed on Me), were born of (My) mind; from them are these creatures in the world. 6
7. He who in reality knows these manifold manifestations of My being and (this) Yoga power of Mine, becomes established in the unshakable Yoga; there is no doubt about it. 7
8. l am the origin of all, from Me everything evolves; thus thinking the wise worship Me with loving consciousness. 8
9. With their minds wholly in Me, with their senses absorbed in Me, enlightening one another, and always speaking of Me, they are satisfied and delighted. 9
10. To them, ever steadfast and serving Me with affection, I give that Buddhi Yoga by which they come unto Me. 10
11. Out of mere compassion for them,
[paragraph continues] I, abiding in their hearts, destroy the darkness (in them) born of ignorance, by the luminous lamp of knowledge. 11
12-13. The Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, art Thou. All the Rishis, the Deva-Rishi Narada as well as Asita, Devala and Vyasa have declared Thee as the Eternal, the Self-luminous Purusha, the first Deva, Birth-less and All-pervading. So also Thou Thyself sayest to me.
14. I regard all this that Thou sayest to me as true, O Keshava. Verily, O Bhagavan, neither the Devas nor the Danavas know Thy manifestation. 14
15. Verily, Thou Thyself knowest Thyself by Thyself, O Purusha Supreme, O Source of beings, O Lord of beings, O Deva of Devas, O Ruler of the world.
16. Thou shouldst indeed speak, without reserve, of Thy divine attributes by which, filling all these worlds, Thou existest. 16
17. How shall I, O Yogin, meditate ever to know Thee? In what things, Bhagavan, art Thou to be thought of by me? 17
18. Speak to me again in detail, Jnanardana, of Thy Yoga-powers and attributes; for I am never satiated in hearing the ambrosia (of Thy speech). 18
The Blessed Lord said:
19. I shall speak to thee now, O best of the Kurus, of My divine attributes, according to their prominence; there is no end to the particulars of My manifestation. 19
20. I am the Self, O Gudakesha, existent in the heart of all beings; I am the
beginning, the middle, and also the end of all beings. 20
21. Of the Adityas, I am Vishnu; of luminaries, the radiant Sun; of the winds, I am Marichi; of the asterisms, the Moon.
22. I am the Sama-Veda of the Vedas, and Vasava (Indra) of the gods; of the senses I am Manas, and intelligence in living beings am I.
23. And of the Rudras I am Sankara, of the Yakshas and Rakshasas the Lord of wealth (Kuvera), of the Vasus I am Pavaka, and of mountains, Meru am I.
24. And of priests, O son of Pritha, know Me the chief, Brihaspati; of generals, I am Skanda; of bodies of water, I am the ocean.
25. Of the great Rishis I am Bhrigu; of words I am the one syllable "Om"; of Yajnas I am the Yajna of Japa (silent repetition); of immovable things the Himalaya. 25
26. Of all trees (I am) the Ashvattha, and Narada of Deva-Rishis; Chitraratha of Gandharvas am I, and the Muni Kapila of the perfected ones.
27. Know Me among horses as Uchchaisshravas, Amrita-born; of lordly elephants Airavata, and of men the king. 27
28. Of weapons I am the thunderbolt, of cows I am Kamadhuk; I am the Kandarpa, the cause of offspring; of serpents I am Vasuki.
29. And Ananta of snakes I am, I am Varuna of water-beings; and Aryaman of Pitris I am, I am Yama of controllers.
30. And Prahlada am I of Diti's progeny, of measurers I am Time; and of beasts I am the lord of beasts, and Garuda of birds.
31. Of purifiers I am the wind, Rama
of warriors am I; of fishes I am the shark, of streams I am Jahnavi (the Ganges).
32. Of manifestations I, am the beginning, the middle and also the end; of all knowledges I am the knowledge of the Self, and Vada of disputants. 32
33. Of letters the letter A am I, and Dvandva of all compounds; I alone am the inexhaustible Time, I the Sustainer (by dispensing fruits of actions) All-formed. 33
34. And I am the all-seizing Death, and the prosperity of those who are to be prosperous; of the feminine qualities (I am) Fame, Prosperity (or beauty), Inspiration, Memory, Intelligence, Constancy and Forbearance.
35. Of Samas also I am the Brihat-Sama, of metres Gayatri am I; of months I am Margashirsha, of seasons the flowery season. 35
36. I am the gambling of the fraudulent, I am the power of the powerful; I am victory, I am effort, I am Sattva of the Sattvika. 36
37. Of the Vrishnis I am Vasudeva; of the Pandavas, Dhananjaya; and also of the Munis I am Vyasa; of the sages, Ushanas the sage.
38. Of punishers I am the sceptre; of those who seek to conquer, I am statesmanship; and also of things secret I am silence, and the knowledge of knowers am I.
39. And whatsoever is the seed of all beings, that also am I, O Arjuna. There is no being, whether moving or unmoving, that can exist without Me.
40. There is no end of My divine attributes, O scorcher of foes; but this is a brief statement by Me of the particulars of My divine attributes.
41. Whatever being there is great,
prosperous or powerful, that know thou to be a product of a part of My splendour.
42. Or what avails thee to know all this diversity, O Arjuna? (Know thou this,. that) I exist, supporting this whole world by a portion of Myself.
The end of the tenth chapter, designated Glimpses of the Divine Glory.
219:1 Supreme, as revealing the unsurpassed truth.
220:2 Prabhavam, higher origin (birth); though birthless, yet taking various manifestations of power. Or it may mean, great Lordly power.
In every way: not only as their producer, but also as their efficient cause, and the guide of their intellect, &c.
220:3 All sins,consciously or unconsciously incurred.
221:4 Arise and according to their respective Karma.
222:6 The four ancient Manus: The four Manus of the past ages known as Savarnas.
222:7 This Yoga power, i.e., the fact that the great Rishis and the Manus possessed their power and wisdom, as partaking of a very small portion of the Lord's infinite power and wisdom. p. 223
Unshakable Yoga: Samadhi, the state of steadiness in right realisation.
223:8 Loving consciousness of the One Self in all.
223:9 Satisfied: when there is cessation of all thirst. p. 224
Says the Purana: All the pleasures of the senses in the world, and also all the great happiness in the divine spheres, are not worth a sixteenth part of that which comes from the cessation of all desires.
224:10 Buddhi Yoga, Devotion of right knowledge, through Dhyana, of My essential nature as devoid of all limitations.
See II. 39.
225:11 Luminous lamp of knowledge, characterised by discrimination; fed by the oil of contentment due to Bhakti; fanned by the wind of absorbing meditation on Me; furnished with the wick of pure consciousness evolved by the constant cultivation of Brahmacharyam and other pious virtues; held in the reservoir of the heart devoid of worldliness; placed in the wind-sheltered recess of the mind, withdrawn from the sense-objects, and untainted by attachment and aversion; shining with the light of right knowledge, engendered by incessant practice of concentration. Sankara.
226:14 Bhagavan is he in whom ever exist in their fulness, all powers, all Dharma, all glory, all success, all renunciation and all freedom. Also he that knows the origin and dissolution and the future of all beings, as well as knowledge and ignorance, is called Bhagavan.
227:16 Since none else can do so.
228:17 In what things &c.: In order that the mind even thinking of external objects, may be enabled to contemplate Thee in Thy particular manifestations in them.
228:18 Janardana, to whom all pray for prosperity and salvation.
229:19 According to their prominence, i.e., only where they are severally the most prominent.
230:20 Gudakesha, conqueror of sleep.
Beginning etc. That is, the birth, the life, and the death of all beings.
232:25 Yajna of Japa, because there is no injury or loss of life involved in it, it is the best of all Yajnas.
233:27 Amrita-born: Brought forth from the ocean when it was churned for the nectar.
235:32 Vada. Discussion is classified under three heads: 1. Vada; 2. Vitanda; 3. Jalpa.
In the first, the object is to arrive at truth; in the second, idle carping at the arguments of another, without trying to establish the opposite side of the question; and in the third, the assertion of one's own opinion, and the attempt to refute that of the adversary by overbearing reply or wrangling rejoinder.
236:33 Inexhaustible Time, i.e., Eternity. Kala spoken of before is finite time.
237:35 Margashirsha, month including parts of November and December.
Flowery season, Spring.
237:36 I am victory, I am effort: I am victory of the victorious, I am the effort of those who make an effort.
GOD'S LIVING BIBLE - THE THIRD TESTAMENT - RESEARCH LIBRARY
Dictionary of Religion
Dictionary and Explanations of The Srimad Bhagavad Gita
Dictionary of Religion
Dictionary and Explanations of The Srimad Bhagavad Gita
The Bhagavad Gita is part of The Mahabharata
This major epic originally in Sanskrit is of ancient India.
The other of its kind is known as the Ramayana. The Mahabharata is a narration about the Kurukshetra War.
Due to the size and nature of many areas available within, for study purposes, a link is provided below.
EXTERNAL LINKS - MAHABHARATA
KÂSHINÂTH TRIMBAK TELANG, M. A.
Arjuna A hero and one of primary characters of The Bhagavad Gita. He is known as the third of the Pandavas. These are the sons and princes of Pandu. When Lord Krisha teaches Arjuna is the one who is the Receiver of his Divine Word. It his conversation with Lord Krishna, which brings this Gita to life, both in philosophy and in learning of the Divine Ways of Lord Krisha. Arjuna, as a warrior is also a primary character, within the entire Mahabarata epic, and was one of the finest archers. It is He who facilitated the defeat of the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra War. Within The Mahabharata he receives many names, some of which you will note as you read the Srimad Bhagavad Gita.
Arjuna - one of taintless fame and glow like silver
Parth or Partha - son of Pritha or Kunti. Incidentally his father is the Lord of Heavens, Indra.
O son of Kunti; Kunti In Hindu mythology, Kunti also called Pritha, was the biological daughter of Shurasena and a Yadava, the sister of Vasudeva,
O son of Prithâ - Prithâ: One who is the son of Pritvi the earth, that is, one who is the representative of mankind. (Prithâ: Queen Kuntî, mother of Arjuna)
O best of the Kurus
The Mahabharata refers to Arjuna by twelve different names. In the story, these names are given when Prince Uttara of Matsya asks Arjuna to prove his identity. The first ten names are spoken by Arjuna himself, while the name "Kapi Dhwaja" is also used to refer to his chariot, the "Nandi Ghosha" .The names and their meanings are as follow:
Arjuna (अर्जुन) - shining or famous like silver.
Phalguna (फाल्गुन) - one born under the star named 'Uttara Phalguni'.
Jishnu (जिष्णु) - triumphant.
Kiritin (किरीटिन्) - one who wears the celestial diadem, Kiriti, presented by Indra.
Shwetavahana (श्वेतवाहन) - one with white horses mounted to his chariot.
Bibhatsu (बीभत्सु) - one who always fights wars in a fair manner.
Vijaya (विजय) - always wins on war.
Partha (पार्थ) - son of Pritha, another name for Kunti.
Savyasachin (सव्यसाचिन्) - ambidextrous
Dhananjaya (धनञ्जय) - one who brings prosperity and wealth in the land where he goes to.
Gudakesha (गुडाकेश) - someone who have control over sleeps
Kapidhwaja (कपिध्वज) - having flag of Kapi (monkey) in his chariot (Arjuna's flag displayed an image of Hanuman from a previous encounter).
Parantapa (परन्तप) - one who concentrates the most, destroyer of enemies from his concentration.
Gandivadhanvan (गाण्डीवधन्वन्) - one who possessed the mighty bow named 'Gandiva' which was created by Lord Brahma.
Gandivadhara (गाण्डीवधर) - Gandiva holder
Madhyapandava (मध्यपाण्डव) - the third of Pandavas, younger to Yudhishthira and Bhima and elder to Nakula and Sahadeva.
NAMES and CONCEPTS OF THE SRIMAD BHAGAVAD GITA - CHAPTER 10
(Sanskrit: Bhṛgu) was one of the seven great sages, the Saptarshis, one of the many Prajapatis (the facilitators of Creation) created by Brahma (The God of Creation), the first compiler of predictive astrology, and also the author of Bhrigu Samhita, the astrological (Jyotish) classic. Bhrigu is considered as a Manasa Putra (mind-born-son) of Brahma. The adjectival form of the name, Bhargava, is used to refer to the descendants and the school of Bhrigu.
Read More: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhrigu
Deva its related feminine term is devi. In modern Hinduism, it can be loosely interpreted as any benevolent supernatural being. The devas in Hinduism, also called Suras, are often juxtaposed to the Asuras, their half brothers. Devas are also the maintainers of the realms as ordained by the Trimurti. They are often warring with their equally powerful counterparts, the Asuras.
In Hindu tradition, Manu is the name accorded to the progenitor of humanity, who appears in the world at the start of a new kalpa (aeon), after universal destruction. According to the Puranas, 14 Manus appear in each kalpa. The period of each Manu is called Manvantara.
The current world is that of Vaivasvata, the seventh Manu of the aeon of the white boar (sveta varaha kalpa). Vaivasvata, also known as Sraddhadeva or Satyavrata, was the king of Dravida before the great flood. He was warned of the flood by the Matsya avatar of Vishnu, and built a boat that carried his family and the seven sages to safety, helped by Matsya. The earliest extant text that mentions this story is the Satapatha Brahmana (dated variously from 700 BCE to 300 BCE). The myth is repeated with variations in other texts, including the Mahabharata and the various Puranas. It is similar to other flood myths such as that of Gilgamesh and Noah.
The Pitris (Sanskrit: पितृ, the fathers), are the spirits of the departed ancestors in Hindu culture. They are often remembered annually.
Rishi is a word used in many Hindu scriptures. A simple translation of the word into English would mean a sage. Hindu scriptures and Hindu mythology tell about a number of rishis. They describe a rishi as an old person, with a lot of knowledge and wisdom. They also say that some of the rishis had great powers, and sometimes even some gods of Hindus like Indra were afraid of rishis. Some of the rishis were famous for becoming angry very quickly and easily. Their anger sometimes resulted in the rishis cursing people.
The Seven Great Rishis
The Saptarishi (from saptarṣi, a Sanskrit dvigu meaning "seven sages") are the seven rishis who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and Hindu literature. The Vedic Samhitas never enumerate these rishis by name, though later Vedic texts such as the Brahmanas and Upanisads do so. They are regarded in the Vedas as the patriarchs of the Vedic religion.
The earliest list of the Seven Rishis is given by Jaiminiya Brahmana 2.218-221: Vashista, Bharadvaja, Jamadagni, Gautama Maharishi, Atri, Visvamitra and Agastya, followed by Brihadaranyaka Upanisad 2.2.6 with a slightly different list: Gautama and Bharadvaja, Visvamitra and Jamadagni, Vashista and Kasyapa and Atri, Brighu. The late Gopatha Brahmana 1.2.8 has Vashista, Visvamitra, Jamadagni, Gautama, Bharadvaja, Gungu, Agastya, Bhrigu and Kaśyapa.
In post-Vedic texts, different lists appear; some of these rishis were recognized as the 'mind born sons'(Sanskrit: manasa putra) of Brahma, the representation of the Supreme Being as Creator. Other representations are Mahesha or Shiva as the Destroyer and Vishnu as the Preserver. Since these seven rishis were also among the primary eight rishis, who were considered to be the ancestors of the Gotras of Brahmins, the birth of these rishis was mythicized.
In some parts of India, people believe these are seven stars of the Big Dipper named "Vashista", "Marichi", "Pulastya", "Pulaha", "Atri", "Angiras" and "Kratu". There is another star slightly visible within it, known as "Arundhati". Arundhati is the wife of Vashista. The seven Rishis in the next Manvantara will be Diptimat, Galava, Parasurama, Kripa, Drauni or Ashwatthama, Vyasa and Rishyasringa.
Ananta of Snakes
Ananta is a Sanskrit term which means 'endless' or 'limitless', also means 'eternal' or 'infinite', in other words, it also means infinitude or an unending expansion or without limit. It is one of the many names of Lord Vishnu. Ananta is the Shesha-naga, the celestial snake, on which Lord Vishnu reclines.
Aryaman (, pronounced as "aryaman"; nominative singular is aryama) is one of the early Vedic deities. His name signifies "close friend", "play-fellow" or "companion". He is the third son of Aditi, the mother of the Adityas. In the RigVeda Aryaman is described as the protector of mares, and the Milky Way (aryamṇáḥ pánthāḥ) is said to be his path. Aryaman is commonly invoked together with Varuna-Mitra, Bhaga, Bṛhaspati, and other Adityas and Asuras. According to Griffith, the Rig Veda also suggests that Aryaman is a supreme deity alongside Mitra and Varuna. According to the Rig Veda, Indra who is traditionally considered the most important deity in the Rig Veda is asked to obtain boons and gifts from Aryaman.
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In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars recognized in the Earth's night sky. It may be part of an official constellation or it may be composed of stars from more than one constellation.
Bṛhaspati (Brihaspati or Bruhaspati) is a Hindu god described as being of yellow or golden color and holding the following divine attributes: a stick, a lotus and beads. He presides over Thursday.
is known as a king of the celestial choristers.
In Hinduism, the gandharvas (Sanskrit: गन्धर्व, gandharva, Kannada: ಗಂಧರ್ವ, Tamil: கந்தர்வர், Telugu: గంధర్వ Gandharvudu, Malayalam: ഗന്ധർവൻ) are male nature spirits, husbands of the Apsaras. Some are part animal, usually a bird or horse. They have superb musical skills. They guarded the Soma and made beautiful music for the gods in their palaces. Gandharvas are frequently depicted as singers in the court of Gods. Gandharvas act as messengers between the gods and humans. In Hindu law, a gandharva marriage is one contracted by mutual consent and without formal rituals.
is a large bird-like creature, or humanoid bird that appears in both Hinduism and Buddhism. Garuda is the mount (vahana) of the Lord Vishnu. Garuda is the Hindu name for the constellation Aquila. The brahminy kite and phoenix are considered to be the contemporary representations of Garuda. Indonesia adopts a more stylistic approach to the Garuda's depiction as its national symbol, where it depicts a Javanese eagle (being much larger than a kite).
Japa - Reciting or chanting words or sacred prayers. This is done with Devotion, through mantras.
The Lord of Wealth - Kubera
Kubera ( Kuvera) also spelt Kuber, is the Lord of Wealth and the god-king of the semi-divine Yakshas in Hindu mythology. He is regarded as the regent of the North (Dik-pala), and a protector of the world (Lokapala). His many epithets extol him as the overlord of numerous semi-divine species and the owner of the treasures of the world. Kubera is often depicted with a plump body, adorned with jewels, and carrying a money-pot and a club.
Rishi Marichi or Mareechi or Marishi -(meaning a ray of light)) is the son of Brahma, the cosmic creator, and also one of the Saptarshi (Seven Great Sages Rishi), in the First Manvantara, with others being Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha. In another classification, Marichis one of the ten Prajapatis, the ruler of people created by Brahma.
Prahlada (Sanskrit: Prahlāda, प्रह्लाद) is a male name that means "filled with joy" or "excess in joy." It is the name of a figure in Vedic literature, most notably the Srimad Bhagavatam. In the literature, Prahlada was a daitya king, the son of Hiranyakashipu, and the father of Virochana. He is often described as a saintly boy from the Puranas known for his piety and bhakti to Lord Vishnu. Despite the abusive nature of his father, Hiranyakashipu, he continued his devotion towards Lord Vishnu. He is considered to be a mahājana, or great devotee, by followers of Vaishnava traditions and is of special importance to devotees of the avatār Narasiṁha. A treatise is accredited to him in the Bhagavata Purana in which Prahlāda describes the process of loving worship to his Lord Vishnu. The majority of stories in the Puranas are based on the activities of Prahlāda as a young boy, and he is usually depicted as such in paintings and illustrations.
Kapila (Hindi: कपिल ऋषि) was a Vedic sage credited as one of the founders of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy. He is prominent in the Bhagavata Purana, which features a theistic version of his Samkhya philosophy. He is estimated to have lived in the 6th-century BCE.
By Company School - www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectid=182825&partid=1&searchText=kapila&fromADBC=ad&toADBC=ad&numpages=10&orig=%2fresearch%2fsearch_the_collection_database.aspx¤tPage=1, Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18029769
(Sanskrit: कामधेनु, [kaːməˈd̪ʱeːnʊ], Kāmadhenu), also known as Surabhi (सुरभि, Surabhī), is a divine bovine-goddess described in Hinduism as the mother of all cows. She is a miraculous "cow of plenty" who provides her owner whatever he desires and is often portrayed as the mother of other cattle as well as the eleven Rudras.
(Sanskrit: नारद, nārada means Naara = Narayan(Wisdom) + Da = Giver , so Nārada means one who gives / spreads the name of The God Narayana) is a Vedic sage who plays a prominent role in a number of Hindu texts, notably the Ramayana and the Bhagavata Purana. Narada is arguably ancient India's most travelled sage with the ability to visit distant worlds and realms (Sanskrit lokas). He is depicted carrying a khartal and Veena with the name Mahathi and is generally regarded as one of the great masters of the ancient musical instrument. This instrument is known by the name "mahathi"which he uses to accompany his singing of hymns, prayers and mantras as an act of devotion to Lord Vishnu. Narada is described as both wise and mischievous, creating some of Vedic literature's more humorous tales. Vaishnav enthusiasts depict him as a pure, elevated soul who glorifies Vishnu through his devotional songs, singing the names Hari and Narayana, and therein demonstrating bhakti yoga. The Narada Bhakti Sutra is attributed to him.
Rama (/ˈrɑːmə/;Sanskrit: राम Rāma) or Rama is the seventh avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu. Rama, also known by his full name Rama Dashrath Suryavanshi, is the central figure of the Hindu epic Ramayana, which is the principal narration of the events connected to his incarnation on earth, his ideals and his greatness. Rama is one of the many popular deities in Hinduism, and especially of the various Vaishnava sects. Religious texts and scriptures based on his life have been a formative component in numerous cultures of South and Southeast Asia. Along with Krishna, Rama is considered to be one of the most important avatars of Vishnu. In a few Rama-centric sects, he is considered the Supreme Being, rather than an avatar.
Rudras are forms and followers of the god Rudra-Shiva and make eleven of the Thirty-three gods in the Hindu pantheon. They are at times identified with the Maruts – sons of Rudra; while at other times, considered distinct from them.
'Here are some examples of ''vahana'' and their associated God or Goddess:-
Agni : ram
Brahma : hamsa / goose / swan
Budha : horse
Durga : lion or tiger named Manashtâla
Ganesh : rat named Kroncha / mouse named Mushika
Ganga : makara
Indra : Vimana (flying chariot) pulled by a horse named Uchchaisshravas / white elephant named Airavata
Shiva : white bull named Nandi or Vrishaba
Skanda : peacock named Parvani
Surya : chariot pulled by seven horses or by a seven-headed horse
Varuna : makara / crocodile / tortoise / swan
Vayu : antelope
Vishnu : human-headed beaked white eagle named Garuda
Yama : black water buffalo.'
“God / Brahman Speaking To Anne Terri Through The Holy Spirit:
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Varuna (/ˈvɜːrʊnə, ˈvɑːrə-/; Sanskrit: Varuṇa वरुण, Malay: Baruna) is the Hindu god of water and the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law of the underwater world. A Makara is his mount. His consort is the Hindu goddess Varuni. Originally the chief god of the Vedic pantheon, Varuna was replaced by Indra and later faded away with the ascendancy of Shiva and Vishnu.
Vasuki (Sanskrit: वासुकी, वासव) is a naga, and a nagaraja, one of the King serpents of Hindu mythology and Buddhist mythology. He is a great king of the nagas and has a gem (Nagamani) on his head.
Vishnu: The Preserver of the universe.
Vishnu is the most followed god in Hinduism. The other gods are not considered as important. The worshipers of Vishnu are called Vaishnava. They only worship him, but include Vishnu's avatars. Vishnu is supposed to return to us on earth help restore the balance of good and evil, through Reincarnation. Because Vishnu has incarnated nine times thus far, it is believed by his followers that there will be one more, close to the end of the world.
Vishnu is represented as a human who is blue and also has four arms such as Brahma. He carries in each hand, a conch, chakra, lotus flower, and the mace. Each of these items has a different meaning.
For example the sound of Om when one listens to the conch shell is to the Hindu the sound of creation.
Read more: glbresearch.proboards.com/thread/5488/hindu-trimurti-children-avatars#ixzz426gLWX1P
the Sama-Veda of the Vedas,
The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, from sāman "song" and veda "knowledge"), is the Veda of melodies and chants. It is an ancient Vedic Sanskrit text, and part of the scriptures of Hinduism. One of the four Vedas, it is a liturgical text whose 1,875 verses are primary derived from the Rigveda. Three recensions of the Samaveda have survived, and variant manuscripts of the Veda have been found in various parts of India.
In Hinduism, the Vasus are attendant deities of Indra, and later Vishnu. They are eight elemental gods (called "Aṣṭa-vasu", 'Eight Vasus') representing aspects of nature, representing cosmic natural phenomenon. The name Vasu means 'Dweller' or 'Dwelling'. They are eight among the Thirty-three gods.
Veda Vyasa (Devanagari: व्यास, वेदव्यास veda-vyāsa), or simply Vyasa, is a central and revered figure in most Hindu traditions. He is also sometimes called Krishna Dvaipāyana (referring to his complexion and birthplace). He is the one who classified the Vedas into four parts). He is the author of the Mahabharata, as well as a character in it. He is considered to be the scribe of both the Vedas and Puranas. According to Hindu beliefs, Vyasa is an incarnation of God Vishnu.
Vyasa lived around 3rd millennium BCE. The festival of Guru Purnima is dedicated to him. It is also known as Vyasa Purnima for it is the day believed to be both his birthday and the day he divided the Vedas. Vyasa was grandfather to the Kauravas and Pandavas of the Mahabharata epic which he composed. Their fathers, Dhritarashtra and Pandu, the sons of Vichitravirya by the royal family, were fathered by him. He had a third son, Vidura, by a serving maid Parishrami.
Yajna (IAST: yajña) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire.
Yaksha is the name of a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, who are caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots. They appear in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist texts.
In Hindu Religion , Yama (Sanskrit: यम), is the lord of death. He is mentioned in the Rigveda, as one who helped humankind find a place to dwell in and gave every individual the power to tread any path s/he wants to. In Vedic tradition Yama was considered to have been the first mortal who died and espied the way to the celestial abodes, thus in virtue of precedence he became the ruler of the departed. He is described as Yama's name can be interpreted to mean "twin", and in some myths he is paired with a twin sister Yami.
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The Philosophy of the Bhagavadgita
by Swami Krishnananda
Chapter 14: The Glory and Majesty of the Almighty (This is about Chapters 8, 9, 10 and 11)
A powerful religious impulse permeates the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Chapters of the Bhagavadgita. The religious consciousness reaches its culmination by certain specific stages in these central Chapters. The presence of God becomes a more intimate affair than it was in the earlier stages. God does not any more remain merely as a Creator, a transcendent Father, capable of attainment, perhaps, after the shedding of the physical body. In the Eighth Chapter, and even in the earlier ones, we do not seem to have been given any hope of God being capable of contact in this particular life. It seemed that the chances are remote, and even when it looked that there is some possibility, it also appeared that this possibility is only after death, and not in this life. But God is not a future reality, He is an Immediate presence. The awe-striking distance that the soul maintains between itself and God converts God into a future possibility and not a present existence.
Every one of us must be having an idea in the mind that God can be contacted only tomorrow or the day after, after some years, or perhaps at the end of several births, and not just now. This difficulty is purely psychological, and it is based on a notion that the soul has its own independent structure. However much we may be told that God is All-in-All, it does not easily become possible for the mind to accept that there is a timeless immediacy in God’s Presence even in this particular life itself. God is a ‘Here’ and a ‘Now’.
We cannot imagine what is timelessness. When we conceive of God, or the attainment of liberation, we consider it as a fag end in the time series, and the notion of time does not leave us. The idea that we are in space and time has become part and parcel of our consciousness and existence. So, if we are in time, we cannot extricate
the presence of God from the time-series; God becomes a future possibility and not an immediate realisation. Not so is the fact emphasised here. God is the Supreme Inclusiveness which enfolds into its being all souls, all things, all individuals, everything that exists, in any manner. There is nothing on earth or in heaven which is not finally rooted in God’s being, so that nothing can ever be, if God is not to be. We cannot be a present being and God remain a future existence; that would be a fallacy of argument. If God were a future existence, we too would become future beings and not have a present life. But we are sure that we are presently existing, we are here just now.
Yet, we cannot feel that God is just now, we adore Him as a future attainment. This is the defect in the time-consciousness which worms itself gradually into our being, so that we cannot think except in terms of space and time. But the Bhagavadgita tries its best to teach the eternity of God and not merely a durationless extension of God’s existence. Whatever was, whatever is and whatever shall be—all this is engulfed in God’s Infinitude. He is the Cause of all causes, and a Cause existing not outside the effect but inseparable from all effects. In a way we may say that God is the Cause as well as all the effects. He is the Creator and also the creation. Knowing this truth, blessed souls adore him and worship him, sing His names as the one Absolute (ekatvena), as the manifold universe (prithaktvena), and as every particular thing in the world (bahudha). Omnifaced is the Supreme Being. He is Immortality (amrita) and Death (mrityu), Existence (sat), as well as Non-existence (asat).
Every speck of space, every atom of matter, can be regarded as a vehicle which reflects one face of God. To think God would be to drown one’s self in an indescribable completeness whereby one loses one’s presence, the individuality evaporates like mist before the blazing Sun. But if there is any desire in the mind to worship God for personal purposes, if there is a desire to go to heaven and enjoy the delights of celestial life, it should be noted that even meritorious deeds have an end, they exhaust themselves when the force of karma is depleted, and there is a reversal of the agent of action to the state from where it rose. There is a return to the earth even after one reaches heaven, and so it is an unreliable satisfaction.
But those who are capable of tuning their minds in an undivided manner to the All-inclusive Almighty Being—they lack nothing, There will be no necessity to go to heaven for enjoying delights or pleasures. Whatever is required will be provided to them, then and there, by the law of God. And this law works in such a way that it is the height of spontaneity of fulfilment. One need not have to ask the law to operate in any particular manner. It works of its own accord. The great promise that is given in one of the verses in the Ninth Chapter is that God will provide us with everything that we need. Not merely that—He, shall take care of everything that belongs to us, and protect not only ourselves but also whatever are our needs. Even thousands of fathers and mothers cannot equal God in compassion and concern, in love and affection, in goodness and kindness. The love that God has for man is a million-fold greater than the love that man can imagine in himself in respect of God. This mighty law of God operates in this manner because of His being present everywhere, at every time. If He had been a limited being confined to space and time, He would have taken time to act, and would have to cover some distance to travel for the purpose of executing a deed. God does not travel, because He is not in space; and He does not take time to act, because He is eternity. This is the difference between the operation of God and the actions of other beings. Even the words ‘instantaneous action’ are’ a poor apology for the magnificent manner in which God works. Our language is ridden over with spatial concepts and temporal ideas. So, even the highest notion that we can entertain in our minds is shackled by spatio-temporal limitations. It is not given to us to contemplate God as He is in Himself, We can only approximate ourselves, we can only try our best, to touch the bare fringe of His being, but the true glory of God is beyond comprehension.
In the Tenth Chapter, the presence of God as a superb glory in every form of excellence is described with particular instances quoted as illustrations. Anything that is supernal, whether in knowledge or power, anything that is superhuman in the way of its action, should be considered as a force or expression of God. There are things in this world which lie beyond human control and understanding. Everyone knows what these things are: Natural laws operate in a superhuman manner, and there are occasions when phenomena manifest themselves in the world which speak of the existence of powers over which man has no control and of which man can have no knowledge. These excellences of tremendous might and glory are the vibhutis, the majestic manifestations of God. God is Supreme Majesty, indescribable glory, unimaginable bliss and joy, by the very thought of which we would run into a state of rapture and ecstasy. Anything which stirs the soul from within can be regarded as
a manifestation of God.
There are things even in this world which stimulate our souls, whereby our entire being seems to well up into action, and we do not then merely think as intellectuals or feel as minds; we are transported above ourselves, we are thrown overboard and freed from the limitations of body and mind. Very rarely do we have such experiences. In utter agony and utter joy we have satisfactions of this type, which go beyond the body-mind limitations. When God touches us, we cease to be human beings and we do not think as intellects or minds at that time. And it is impossible to describe in language what would be that state when we are magnetised by the glory of God. We melt away into nothing, we cease to be, as if we are possessed by a supernal beatitude. For those who have not passed through such experiences, these raptures are only words without sense, they might convey some grammatical dictionary-meaning, but the spirit of it is lost when the soul is not active, and God is present only when the soul is awake, for God is the Soul of the universe. And when the Soul speaks, it is God summoning. Such glories are visible even in this world.
In mighty incarnations, sages, saints and seers, and in the various natural phenomena, anything that stuns us, transports us, strikes us with wonder, as a miracle, and attracts us wholly, from which we cannot turn our eyes away, that which absorbs us entirely—such a thing is a ray of God’s manifestation. When we hear all these things, we do not know what to say and what to think in our minds. We stand stupefied at this glory and mystery behind creation; stupefaction is the only word, nothing else can describe our condition. Our minds cease to think and our feelings do not any more operate. We do not know at that time whether we are alive or dead, whether we are, or whether we are not. Such a condition we get into when we are prepared for God’s vision. These descriptions of divine glory, which are delineated in the Ninth and Tenth Chapters, excite the curiosity in the deepest spirit of Arjuna’s aspiration, and leave him wondering if he could have a vision of these glories. Here commences the Eleventh Chapter of the Bhagavadgita.
“What do you mean by this grandeur that transports us in this manner? Who is this Almighty and how could we have a realisation, an experience of this Divine Glory?” The great Teacher is standing there—Krishna is before Arjuna; and the disciple implores the great Master, “Is it possible for a person like me to have a vision of this Glory, a direct experience of that which you have been describing up to this time as the be-all and end-all of all things? And surrendering himself wholly to the great Incarnation, the disciple speaks, “If you consider me fit enough to have a vision of this Glory, may I be endowed with this blessedness. Deign to shower this Grace upon me.” It is in the Eleventh Chapter that the poet of the Bhagavadgita bursts forth into expressions which try to convey in a highly enrapturing language the phenomenon which revealed Itself before the seeking soul, Arjuna. Words have to be employed as vehicles in the description of this Glory because we have no other instruments available in the world. All explanation is through words. So, even the highest poetic genius has to employ images which belong to the world of perceptions. We speak of God as Light, but we cannot imagine any light which is greater than the light of the Sun, for us that is the supreme light, and the inclusiveness which God is, the infinitude which is God’s being, has also to be explained in a similar manner by imagery and comparison. Imagine thousands of Suns rising. and splashing forth simultaneously in the sky, dazzling the eyes of the beholders; no one has seen in one’s life what it is to see thousands of Suns at one stroke. These, again, are words for us with no significance. We cannot even dream what it would be to see several thousands of Suns coming together and blazing in the eastern horizon. We can only console ourselves by thinking that we understand what it is. Even the great immortality that we are thinking of is a shadow, as it were, cast by the super-immortal being of God, says the Veda. Not merely is God this supernal Light which blinds the eyes of the soul, but God is infinitude, again something which we cannot understand. What is infinitude? Every blessed thing is there transformed into its originality, not in its crude, distorted, reflected form, as we see it here today. The originals of things get revealed in the Supreme Being of God. These are the archetypes of all things. Philosophers tell us that we are all shadows, here moving in the world of phenomena. Every one of us has a reality beyond ourselves. Even our own realities are not here! We are above in a noumenal existence, while this phenomenal universe is a conglomeration of shadows and reflections of the true archetypes. God is not a totality of shadows, a bunch of finite particulars. God does not become complete by a bringing together of all the individuals conceivable in the world. You and I and everything imaginable put together do not make God, because these visibles are all shadows, unrealities in the end, and a multitude of unrealities do not go to constitute one reality. We are far below the level of understanding what all this can be. Our minds are not made in such a way as to be able to grasp what these originals could be like. Our souls are our originals, the body and mind are reflections. But when we think of ourselves, we think only of bodies and minds; our real soul is beyond our comprehension. The soul is in ourselves; the soul that we really are, is the original in us, and that is the representation of God. God is present in us as the soul in us, and not merely as a particular expression of name and form in space and time. That is why when the great vision is described in the Gita, we are told that perfection was seen everywhere in that Glory. One does not see ugliness and suffering, which are consequences of the finite vision which wrests one particular from another and does not read the meaning of anything with relevance to all other things. The vision of God is the vision that God Himself has in respect of the whole of creation. To see God is to see through the eyes of God. And that would be a veritable realisation of the Soul of the universe. Here the perceptive faculties and the cognitive processes cease to function. It is not the intellect that understands or the feeling that feels God’s presence, it is the bursting forth of the intuitional integrality by which what is intended is a totality of grasp of the whole of the cosmos at one stroke and in simultaneity, and not as a succession of phenomena. We do not count one thing after another thing as we do here in this world when we try to see a series of objects. We cannot see with our eyes all things at once. Even when it appears that we are seeing many things at one time, we are really seeing one thing after another thing in a series, in a time-process, as if they are extended in space. But, as we observed, God-vision is a timeless, spaceless experience. And, therefore, it is not a visualisation of many things one after another in a series, as in an arithmetical computation. It is a timeless grasp of the eternity of Being, where everything is a here-and-now and not afterwards or somewhere else. Everything is just here, and everything is just now. Here is the abolition of space and a transcendence of time. Our spatial and temporal body-mind-complex vanishes, melts away into the supernal menstruum of the Absolute. Such was the vision which the great Lord condescended to bestow upon the seeking Arjuna.
And what one feels at that time is, again, poetically portrayed in the great hymnology which fills the whole of the Eleventh Chapter. It does not actually mean that one will be speaking something there. The poet of the Gita has to express himself in language, and so he uses a poetic style to demonstrate the feeling of the soul at the time of this divine possession and experience, at which time it becomes giddy with God-Consciousness. The soul does not utter words in human language. It shudders from the roots and shakes at the very bottom and it does not think and feel but melts away gradually into the awe. This process of the evaporating of the soul-consciousness into the Consciousness of All-Being is the significance behind the exuberant description of the prayers which Arjuna seems to have offered when he was blessed with the Divine Vision. The functions of the individual cease automatically, and completely. Neither does one speak, nor see, nor hear; nor is there any particularised sensation. All the empirical faculties are brought together into a concentrated oneness and get gathered up in the soul within instead of operating separately as in ordinary perception. The whole being is centred in one indivisible splendour of the soul, and it is the soul that flies to the Supreme Soul. And even as the soul that beholds this vision does not express itself in any language but indescribably transforms itself into the All-in-All God, so, too, God does not speak in a language, in the words that we utter through our mouths. Yet, a response from this Mighty Being seems to come in answer to the prayer of the soul that beholds the vision, and the Almighty speaks in a transcendental language of the unity of everything with everything else.
The feeling or the notion in the individual that it does anything at all is a fallacy, and here in the context of the Mahabharata, where the Bhagavadgita occurs, Arjuna is told that the war has already taken place, it is already concluded, victory has already been won, there is nothing more to be done by anyone. The individuals are just instruments. “In a timeless comprehension, I have done everything that is to be done, in the firmament of infinity and eternity.” To Arjuna, to us, from the point of view of time, the Mahabharata might appear to be a future event that is yet to take place. But to the Omnipresent Absolute, which has neither time nor place, it has eternally taken place and its results are decided once and for all.
It is added that everyone cannot have this vision. It is not that merely for the asking it suddenly comes, unless the asking comes from the soul. Our little charities, a few good deeds and some studies that we make are inadequate for the purpose. God is not a cheap substance that one can purchase for a few dollars or pounds. Impossible is this vision; even the gods crave to have this blessing. Any amount of learning or scriptural lore is insufficient for this fulfilling attainment. All the austerities that we may perform, all the efforts that we can think of from our side cannot promise us this blessedness of God-vision. Then what is the solution? How do we get it? A whole-souled surrender of the self is the way. Unless the self melts away into the All-Self, this vision is not going to materialise itself. Any individualistic austerity, or, for the matter of that, any performance whatsoever which retains the individuality intact, even in the name of religion or spiritual practice, will go counter to the requirements of this great realisation. The condition is this: In our spiritual practices, do we long to maintain our individualities? Though it is true that we are spiritually engaged or religiously conscious, are we secretly hugging our own ego or personality? If this is to be there, the vision is far off. Whoever performs works for His sake, whoever regards Him as the Supreme Soul, and bears not enmity to anyone, looks upon all things with an equal vision, with no difference of high and low, or even better or worse, whoever whole-heartedly considers this wonder as the only goal of life, and everything else as merely an accessory or an antecedent to this great Realisation, one who is possessed with this spirit of aspiration which transfigures the whole of one’s being in the love of the One God, one who seeks God, and God alone, and nothing else, in the highest sense of the term—to such a person God-Vision will be an immediate experience. Inasmuch as there is no isolation or individuality in God, to have His experience or Vision, one must also be free from the individuality of the self. It appears that God alone can behold God. God experiences; God realises God. It is not that man, as a man, maintains himself as man, and then reaches God. It is not you or I that can attain God, but God-vision bursting itself within itself, and God looking at Himself in God. It is a mystical enigma, a secret available only to sincere souls, and everyone is blessed with this beatitude of experience, when the heart is sincere.
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