*THE SANATSUGÂTÎYA - Chapter IV Jan 29, 2015 13:43:10 GMT 1
Post by Anne Terri on Jan 29, 2015 13:43:10 GMT 1
O Sanatsugâta! since you have spoken these words of highest significance, relating to the Brahman, and of numerous forms 4, give me that advice which is excellent, and difficult to obtain in the
midst of these created objects 1. Such is my request, O youth!
This Brahman, O king! about which you question me with such perseverance, is not to be attained by anybody who is in a hurry. When the mind is absorbed in the understanding 2, then can that knowledge, which must be deeply pondered over, be attained by living the life of a Brahmakârin 3. For you are speaking of that primordial knowledge 4, which consists in the truth; which is obtained by the good by living the life of Brahmakârins 5; which being obtained, men cast off this mortal world; and which knowledge, verily, is to be invariably (found) in those who have been brought up under preceptors 6.
Since that knowledge is capable of being truly acquired by living the life of a Brahmakârin, therefore tell me, O Brâhmana! of what description the life of a Brahmakârin is 7.
Those who entering (as it were) the womb 8 of a
preceptor, and becoming (as it were) a fœtus, practise the life of Brahmakârins, become even in this world authors of Sâstras 1, and they repair to the highest truth 2 after casting off (this) body. They subjugate desires here in this world, practising forbearance in pursuit of the Brahmic state 3; and with courage, they even here remove the self out of the body 4, like the soft fibres from the Muñga. Father and mother, O descendant of Bharata! only form the body. But the birth 5 obtained from the preceptor, that verily is true 6, and likewise immortal. He perfects 7 (one), giving (one) immortality. Recognising what he has done (for one), one should not injure him. The disciple should always make obeisance to the preceptor 8; and, free from heedlessness, should always desire sacred instruction. When the pure man obtains knowledge by this same course of discipleship 9, that is the first quarter of his life as a Brahmakârin. As (is) his conduct
always towards his preceptor, so likewise should he behave towards the preceptor's wife, and so likewise should he act towards the preceptor's son--(that) is said to be the second quarter. What one, recognising what the preceptor has done for one, and understanding the matter 1 (taught), feels with a delighted heart regarding the preceptor--believing that one has been brought into existence 2 by him--that is the third quarter of life as a Brahmakârin. One should do what is agreeable to the preceptor, by means of one's life and riches, and in deed, thought, and word 3--that is said to be the fourth quarter. (A disciple) obtains a quarter by time 4, so likewise a quarter by associating with the preceptor, he also obtains a quarter by means of his own energy; and then he attains to a quarter by means of the Sâstras. The life as a Brahmakârin of that man, whose beauty 5 consists in the twelve beginning with knowledge, and whose limbs are the other (qualifications mentioned), and who has
strength 1, bears fruit, they say, by association with a preceptor, in (the shape of) contact with that entity--the Brahman. Whatever wealth may come to man who lives in this way, he should even pay that over to the preceptor. He would thus be adopting the conduct of the good which is of many merits; and the same conduct is (to be adopted) towards the preceptor's son. Living thus, he prospers greatly 2 on all sides in this world; he obtains sons and position; the quarters 3 and sub-quarters shower (benefits 4) on him, and men pass their lives as Brahmakârins under him. By this life as a Brahmakârin, the divinities obtained their divinity. And the sages, too, became great by living the life of Brahmakârins. By this same (means), too, the Apsarasas, together with the Gandharvas, achieved for themselves beautiful forms. And by this life as a Brahmakârin, the sun illuminates (the universe). That man of knowledge, O king! who practising penance, may by penance pierce through or tear off his body, crosses beyond childhood 5 by means of this (life as a Brahmakârin), and at the time of the termination (of life) obstructs death 6. Those who understand this (life as a Brahmakârin) attain to a
condition like that of those who as (for what they want) from the wish-giving stone 1, when they obtain the thing desired. By performing action, O Kshatriya! people conquer (for themselves only) perishable worlds 2. (But) the man of understanding attains by knowledge to the everlasting glory--for there is no other way to it 3.
Where a Brâhmana possessed of knowledge, perceives it, does it appear as white 4, as red, or again as black, or again as grey or tawny? What is the colour of that immortal, indestructible goal?
It appears not as white, as red, nor again as black, nor again as grey, nor tawny 5. It dwells not on earth, nor in the sky; nor does it bear a body in this ocean 6 (-like world). It is not in the stars, nor does it dwell in the lightning; nor is its form 7 to be seen in the clouds, nor even in the air, nor in the deities; it is not to be seen in the moon, nor in the sun. It is not to be seen in Rik texts, nor in
Yagus texts; nor yet in the Atharvan texts, nor in the pure Sâman texts; nor yet, O king, in the Rathantara or Brihadratha 1 hymns. It is seen in the self of a man of high vows 2. It is invincible, beyond darkness 3, it comes forth from within 4 at the time of destruction. Its form is minuter than the minutest (things), its form is larger even than the mountains 5. That is the support 6 (of the universe); that is immortal; (that is) all things perceptible 7. That is the Brahman, that is glory 8. From that all entities were produced 9, in that they are dissolved. All this shines forth as dwelling in it in the form of light 10. And it is perceived by means of knowledge 11 by one who understands the self; on it depends this whole universe. Those who understand this become immortal.
174:1 This again is not clear, and the discrepancies of the MSS. make it more perplexing. The meaning, I take to be, that a man may perceive all material things, such as the worlds, Bhûr, &c. (as the commentators put it), but to be really omniscient, you must have knowledge of the truth--the Brahman. See Sabhâ Parvan, chapter V, stanza 7. And see, too, Brihadâranyaka, p. 613.
174:2 P. p. 167 supra.
174:3 Hearing the Vedântas--Upanishads,' &c,, says Sankara. See note supra, p. 173.
174:4 Does this mean referring to many aspects of the Brahman? Sankara merely says nânârûpâ. Nîlakantha takes it differently, and as meaning that in which everything is elucidated; 'relating to the Brahman' Nîlakantha takes to mean 'leading to the Brahman,' or 'instrument for attaining to the Brahman.'
175:1 In this material world, the highest knowledge is not to be got. Cf. Katha, p. 96.
175:2 I. e. withdrawn from objects and fixed on the self only. Cf. Gîtâ, p. 79, and Maitrî, p. 179, where, however, we have hrid for buddhi.
175:3 Virokana and Indra do so according to the Khândogya, p. 570 See also Mundaka, p. 311.
175:4 The object of which is the primal Brahman.
175:5 Cf. Khândogya, p. 534; and Gîtâ, pp. 78, 79, and the passage from the Katha there cited.
175:6 Khândogya, pp. 264-459.
175:7 See Khândogya, p. 553 seq.
175:8 I. e. attending closely upon him; fœtus = pupil.
176:1 Learned, men of knowledge, Sankara.
176:2 The supreme, 'which is described as 'truth, knowledge,' &c. In our ancient works the truth often means the real.
176:3 The state of being absorbed in the Brahman. Cf. Gîtâ, p. 52.
176:4 Cf. Katha, p. 158.
176:5 Sankara cites Âpastamba (p. 11) in support of this, and Prasna-upanishad, p. 256. The consciousness of being one with the Brahman is a new birth. See, too, Mundaka, p. 282.
176:6 That birth is not merely delusive, and does not result in death.
176:7 Immortality or final emancipation is not to be achieved without knowledge, which can only be got from a preceptor. And one is not perfect without that immortality; one is limited by the conditions of human existence. See Nirukta (Roth's ed.), p. 41.
176:8 Sankara compares Svetâsvatara, p. 374. The necessity of having a Guru is often insisted on even in the Upanishads. Cf. Mundaka, p. 282; Khândogya, p. 264.
176:9 Stated at the beginning of this speech, Sankara.
177:1 The meaning of the Vedic texts, &c., Sankara in one copy; the highest aim of man, according to another copy.
177:2 See note on p. 176.
177:3 I keep the order of the original, though I do not translate quite literally; 'thought and word' should be literally mind and speech.' See, on the collocation, Gîtâ, p. 123 inter alia.
177:4 Time = maturity of understanding which comes by time; energy = intellectual power; Sâstras = consultation about Sâstras with fellow-students--Sankara, who adds that the order is not material as stated, and quotes a stanza which may be thus rendered, 'The pupil receives a quarter from the preceptor, a quarter by his own talent; he receives a quarter by time; and a quarter through fellow-Brahmakârins.
177:5 The body being disregarded, these qualities are attributed to the self in this way. For the twelve, see p. 167; the others are abandonment, truthfulness, &c., p. 169.
178:1 To observe the duties referred to, Sankara. But see, too, p. 167, note .
178:2 Obtains wealth, learning, and greatness,' says a commentator. For similar benefits, cf. Khândogya, p. 122.
178:3 Cf. Khândogya, p. 132.
178:4 'Wealth,' says Nîlakantha, as well as another commentator.
178:5 Ignorance; cf. note at p. 154 supra. Nîlakantha reads 'reaches' instead of 'crosses beyond,' and interprets 'bâlya' to mean 'freedom from affection, aversion,' &c. Cf. Brihadâranyaka, p. 605. As to the divinity of divinities, cf. Taitt. Âran. p. 886.
178:6 Nîlakantha reads 'vanquishes death.' The meaning is, he reaches final emancipation. Cf. p. 154 supra.
179:1 Called Kintâmani. The effect of Brahmakarya is that those who practise it can get what they desire.
179:2 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 76; Khândogya, p. 538; Mundaka, p. 279.
179:3 Cf. Svetâsvatara, p. 327.
179:4 Cf. Brihadâranyaka, p. 877.
179:5 Cf. Katha, p. 119; and Mundaka, p. 267. As to its not dwelling in earth, sky, &c., Sankara refers to Khândogya, p. 518, as implying that.
179:6 Literally, 'it bears no water in the ocean.' 'Water' is said by the commentators to mean the five elements of which the body is composed. See Manu I, 5, and Khândogya, p. 330. In the Svetâsvatara it signifies mind (See p. 388). For ocean meaning world, or samsâra; cf. Aitareya-upanishad, p. 182.
179:7 Here I do not render rûpa by colour, as before.
180:1 See Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 16; Tândya-brâhmana, p. 838; Gîtâ, p. 90; and Kaushîtaki, p. 21. Brihadratha = Brihat-sâman (?).
180:2 The twelve great vows--knowledge, &c., mentioned above, see p. 167. Nîlakantha takes Mahâvrata to refer to the sacrifice of that name. It is described in the Aitareya Âranyaka.
180:3 See Gîtâ, p. 78, note .
180:4 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 82, and Îsopanishad, p. 12.
180:5 See Gîtâ, p. 78, note .
180:6 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 113; Katha p. 99.
180:7 So Nîlakantha. The original word ordinarily means 'worlds.'
180:8 Cf. Svetâsvatara, p. 347.
180:9 Cf. the famous passage in the Taittirîya, p. 123: and also Mundaka, p. 289.
180:10 The explanations of the commentators are not quite clear as to the word ahnâ, 'in the form of light.' Probably the meaning is: The universe depends on the Brahman, and is, as it were, the light of the Brahman. Sankara compares the passages referred to at Gîtâ, p. 112, note .
180:11 'Not by means of action,' says Sankara.
THE SANATSUGÂTÎYA - Chapter V.1
THE BHAGAVADGÎTÂ - WITH THE SANATSUGÂTÎYA AND
TRANSLATED BY - KÂSHINÂTH TRIMBAK TELANG, M. A.
Volume 8, The Sacred Books of the East Oxford, The Clarendon Press
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